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Posted on | december 21, 2013 | 5 Comments
In 2009, Hitler’s so-called skull was examined by the University of Connecticut and DNA analysis and bone’s identity proved it belonged to a woman, aged 20 to 40. The main question is: was Hitler’s suicide a cover-up or are the researchers deceived as dabblers by a false skull? NL-Aid examined previous evidence from National Archives and Universities all over the world, in particular dental records. As a backup, the collected documents have been examined and analysed by a Dutch dentist (who likes to stay anonymous). I will present all the details of this historical dental and pathological evidence which, for the first time in history, are published all together. These are rare documents from world’s darkest crypts. Hopefully, this will end all hoaxes and conspiracy theories. The conclusion of this article is that not research techniques should be the core, but research methods. I call it ‘The Seduction’, a leghold trap of scientists blind spot. And yes: Hitler committed suicide. Without a doubt. Though, some inconsistent and unexplained assertions are surveyed.
Bellantoni and Strausbaugh
Nicholas Bellantoni and Linda Strausbaugh, dealing with DNA analyses of Hitler’s skull as seen in History Channel’s documentary Hitler’s Escape, concluded that Hitler’s suicide had some loose ends. According to The Guardian ‘the world is still in the dark about what really happened in Hitler’s bunker on 30 April 1945’. There is no correlation between DNA results and Hitler’s escape. The remains of Hitler have been a tug-of-war by the Russians, perhaps causing historical disorder about his whereabouts. So, I asked Bellantoni and Strausbaugh if they could have been deceived with the wrong skull.
BELLANTONI: “As Dr. Strausbaugh has stated, we are in agreement that Hitler died in the bunker. The cranial vault fragment in question was recovered a full year (May 1946) after the initial discoveries of the bodies (May 1945). As we say in archaeology, “context” is everything. The context had been destroyed in waiting over a year to return to Berlin. The mandible that was sent to Moscow in 1945 is, I believe, that of Hitler. The cranial vault is someone else.”
This is reassuring, but this is not expressed in the content or title of Hitler’s Escape. The documentary ends with:
BELLANTONI: “We’re going to change everybody’s perception, of not only his remains but what maybe happened to Eva, Hitler and others in that bunker. If this is not Hitler, who is it and as a result of that we’ve got a lot more homework to do.”
The fact remains that History Channel made a documentary with a “worthless” piece of skull, resulting in an unnecessary documentary with an embroiled effect. The e-mail I received from Bellantoni very much opposes the documentary. Let me show the hard evidence proving Hitler’s suicide once and for all.
Several researchers contributed to the evidence of Hitler’s suicide. They are chronologically discussed. For convenience, I refer to the time-table at the bottom of the article.
Lev Bezymenski’s (or Bezymenskiĭ’s) description of Hitler’s autopsy by the Soviets and Hitler’s remains are published in Der Tod des Adolf Hitler (The death of Adolf Hitler; unknown documents from Soviet archives) (download Here, 62 Mb).
The book is a witness report and therefore worth reading in its entirety. Bezymenski also describes the last days in the bunker, as shown in the movie Der Untergang. Of course, the Soviet perspective is highlighted. The book opens with several witness reports, for example by Harry Mengeshausen at 13th May 1945 (one of Hitler’s bodyguards). The entire procedure (the carrying out of Hitler’s and Braun’s corpses, their cremation and the burial) was observed from a distance of600 meters on April 30. He also attested that, on April 29, Hitler’s dog also was buried in the crater. On investigating the places, Mengeshausen had indicated, his deposition was found to be correct. There is also a passage about how Hitler’s corpse is found by Ivan Churakov in the presence of Bezymenski. Besides similar witness reports, the book includes several detailed anatomical/pathological determinations, autopsy reports and an extensive cause of death. I’ll limit myself to quoting some significant dental observations.
i. Striking passages (page 44-57)
‘The text of the final and most important autopsy report (documents Nos. 12 and 13) are reproduced verbatim, in the following, either in their entirety or in somewhat abbreviated form.’
(The dental codes are Palmer Notations)
‘In the upper jaw there are nine teeth connected by a bridge of yellow metal (gold). The bridge is anchored by pins on the second left and the second right incisor. This bridge consists of 4 upper incisors (A), 2 canine teeth (B), the first left bicuspid (C), and the first and second right bicuspids (D), as indicated in the sketch. The first left incisor (E) consists of a white platelet, with cracks and a black spot in the porcelain (enamel) at the bottom. This platelet is inset into the visible side of the metal (gold) tooth. The second incisor, the canine tooth, and the left bicuspid, as well as the first and second incisors and the first bicuspid on the right, are the usual porcelain (enamel) dental plates, their posterior parts fastened to the bridge. The right canine tooth is fully capped by yellow metal (gold). The maxillary bridge is vertically sawed off behind the second left bicuspid (F). The lower jawbone lies loose in the singed oral cavity. The alveolar processes are broken in the back and have ragged edges. The front surface and the lower edge of the mandibula are scorched. On the front surface the charred prongs of dental roots are recognizable. The lower jaw consists of fifteen teeth, ten of which are artificial. The incisors (G) and the first right bicuspid (H) are natural, exhibiting considerable wear on the masticating surface and considerably exposed necks. The dental enamel has a bluish shimmer and a dirty yellow coloration around the necks. The teeth to the left (I) are artificial, of yellow metal (gold), and consists of a bridge of gold crowns. The bridge is fastened to the third, the fifth (in the bridge, the sixth tooth), and the eight tooth (in the bridge, the ninth tooth). The second bicuspid to the right (J) is topped by a crown of yellow metal (gold) which is linked to the right canine tooth by an arching plate. Part of the masticating surface and the posterior surface of the right canine tooth is capped by a yellow metal (gold) plate as part of the bridge. The first right molar is artificial, white, and secured by a gold clip connected with the bridge of the second bicuspid and the right incisor.’
‘According to the record of the interrogation of Frau Käthe Heusermann it may be presumed that the teeth as well as the bridge described in the document are those of Chancellor Hitler.’ (see photo of Heusermann’s sketch).
- ‘Käthe Heusermann’s assistance soon discovered X-ray photographs of the Führer’s teeth.’
- ‘Frau Heusermann and Echtmann (dental technician, NL-Aid) were interrogated by me separately. I was assisted by Major Bystrov. In answer to my question Käthe Heusermann and Fritz Echtmann described Hitler’s teeth from memory in minute detail. Their information about bridges, crowns, and fillings corresponded precisely with the entries in the medical history and with the X-ray pictures that we had found. Next we asked them to identify the jawbones which had been taken from the male corpse. Frau Heusermann and Echtmann recognized them unequivocally as those of Adolf Hitler.’
‘Crucial part of the interrogation of Frau Heusermann on May 10:
- Question: Can you establish from the dental bridges that they belong to Hitler?
- Answer: Yes, there is no doubt of it.
- Question: We have shown you the dental bridge of an upper jaw and a lower jaw with teeth. Do you know to whom these teeth belong?
- Answer: The teeth shown to me belong to the German Chancellor Adolf Hitler. The upper jaw on the left, behind the fourth tooth, exhibits a distinct trace which occurred when the gold bridge was sawed by the dental drill, at the time of the extraction of the sixth tooth. This extraction was performed by Professor Blaschke with my assistance in the Autumn…
All further evidence that these bridges are Adolf Hitler’s tallies with those named by me before from memory, with the exception on the fourth lower right tooth, which I believed to be an artificial porcelain tooth. But the teeth you have shown me prove that this tooth is a natural one.
- Question: Can you affirm that the teeth shown to you are Adolf Hitler’s teeth?
- Answer: Yes, I affirm that the teeth shown to me are Adolf Hitler’s teeth.’
‘The dental technician Fritz Echtmann confirmed Frau Heusermann’s statement on May 11.’
‘I even started to argue with her, because I had overlooked one detail when examining the teeth and had miscounted the steel pins. She turned out to be right.’
‘Frau Heusermann repeated everything again in detail and declared categorically that the prosthesis I had shown her was in fact Hitler’s dental prosthesis. The picture was clear beyond doubt, for Frau Heusermann as well as for me as forensic expert.’
ii. Striking passage
The following passage does not support my reasoning, but it is too specific to skip: ‘The left testicle could not be found either in the scrotum or on the spermatic cord inside the inguinal canal, nor in the small pelvis.’
Hugo Johannes Blaschke (1881-1959), Adolf Hitler’s personal dentist from 1933 to April 1945. Blaschke’s Final Interrogation Report (download full interrogation with more sketches HERE) describes the characteristics of Hitler’s teeth (and of Eva Braun and Martin Bormann). This interrogation document has never been published ever before. Here are some examples of Hitler’s set of teeth.
‘This is a view of the Upper Jaw, seen frontally, as it would appear if all artificial elements except fillings were removed.’
‘Lower Jaw, seen frontally.’
‘Lower Jaw, seen from the back.’
‘Lower Jaw, seen from above.’
‘This is a view of the Lower Jaw, seen frontally, as it would appear if all artificial elements except fillings were removed.’
The interrogators conclude: ‘Blaschke had furnished a rather hasty and incomplete description of Hitler’s teeth. (…) The description on which the present report is based is the only one he made with the aid of the X-ray photo’s. (…) It can, therefore, be considered authentic and accurate.’
The document also show drawings of dental records of Eva Braun and Martin Bormann. I invite you to study the entire historical and rare document.
British intelligence officer and Oxford professor Dr. H.R. Trevor-Roper published his book The Last Days of Hitler in 1947. Only the last chapter deals with Hitler’s death and because the book is still sold on a commercial basis (ISBN 0 330 49060 5), this is the only document I haven’t scanned. I will quote some passages instead.
Trevor-Roper wrote a qualitative study by interviewing the last survivor’s of the Führerbunker. He was ordered by the British intelligence to investigate the circumstances of Adolf Hitler’s death in November 1945. He wrote a chronological story, a piece of detective work, rather than writing out the interviews. Unfortunately, this is less scientific but Trevor-Roper gives a good picture of the final days in the Führerbunker. One fine example is a segment about the motives of Hitler’s suicide: ‘Captured by partisans during the general uprising of northern Italy, Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci had been executed, and their bodies suspended by the feet in the market place of Milan to be beaten and pelted by the vindictive crowd. If the full details were ever known to them, Hitler and Eva Braun could only have repeated the orders they had already given: their bodies were to be destroyed ‘so that nothing remains’; ‘I will not fall into the hands of an enemy who requires a new spectacle to divert his hysterical masses’. (…) Hitler went into a frenzy, shouting: “This will never happen to me!” ’
Hitler’s personal servant Heinz Linge tried to minimize witnesses of the final scène by ordering most people to leave the Chancellery. From the book, I abstracted the following people who witnessed Hitler’s death firsthand:
- Joseph Goebbels; Reich Minister of Propaganda; died on 1 May 1945.
- Martin Bormann; head of the Party Chancellery and private secretary to Hitler; died on 2 May 1945.
- Arthur Axmann; head of the Hitler Youth; died on 24 October 1996.
- Heinz Linge; SS Officer, valet for Hitler; died on 9 March 1980.
- Otto Guensche; Sturmbannführer (major) in the Waffen-SS and a member of 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler before he became Hitler’s personal adjutant; died on 2 October 2003; Bezymenski and Trevor-Roper both write about Guensche the fact that Guensche put the corpses on fire (respectively page 50-51 and 180 of their own book).
- Wilhelm Burgdorf; German general; died on 2 May 1945.
- Erich Kempka; SS-Obersturmbannführer and Hitler’s chauffeur; died on 24 January 1975.
About the cremation of Hitler and Braun: three unauthorized police guards witnessed from which it was intended to exclude them: Erich Mansfeld, Hermann Karnau, Hans Hofbeck. I could not find any details about them. Their stories are briefly described. Bezymenski also wrote about casual bystander Mengeshausen.
It is not clear which of these aforementioned Nazis (only those in bold formatting, because the other ones died in 1945, Mengeshausen was a Soviet witness) have been interviewed by Trevor-Roper. A missed opportunity, though I could trace an indication that he mainly interviewed Erich Kempka.
Trevor-Roper organizes the final developments of Hitler’s last henchmen. There is even a list of people who attended the event in the Bunker (22 April to 1 May); what their duties were and when they left. The book has no pathological evidence and consequently does not support the dental records. But in the context of our quest, only the following passages give details about Hitler’s suicide.
Striking passages (chapter seven)
‘A single shot was heard. After an interval they entered the suite. Hitler was lying on the sofa, which was soaked with blood. He had shot himself through the mounth. Eva Braun was also on the sofa, als dead. A revolver was by her side, but she had not used it; she had swallowed poison. The time was half past three.’
‘Outside, in the bunker, another ceremony was being prepared: the Viking funeral.’
Karnau watched the burning corpses for a moment. They are easily recognizable, though Hitler’s head was smashed. (…) Karnau: “It is sad that none of the officers seems to worry about the Fuehrer’s body. I am proud that I alone know where he is.”
‘These bones have never been found.’ (In 1947 Trevor-Ropes had no knowledge of Bezymenski’s report, NL-Aid).
Reidar Fauske Sognnaes (1911-1984), Dean of the Harvard School of Dental Medicine Boston. Sognnaes was a forensic scientist and credited because he disproved the theory that President George Washington had wooden teeth. Sognnaes published two research reports about Hitler’s remains through examinating classified files from USA and Russia.
- The odontological identification of Adolf Hitler. Definitive documentation by x-rays, interrogations and autopsy findings (1973). (download HERE)
- Dental evidence in the postmortem identification of Adolf Hitler, Eva Braun, and Martin Bormann (1976). (download HERE)
Sognnaes did a literary detective with the existing files of Bezymenski and Blaschke in 1977. Sognnaes classifies and organizes these facts in a clear manner. The Russians destroyed Hitler’s body in 1970.
ad 1. Striking passages
‘X-rays of Hitler were taken during late 1944 and uncovered in early 1972.’
‘In 1968 the Russian writer Lev Bezymenski published in West Germany a book entitled Der Tod des Adolf Hitler (The Death of Adolf Hitler). Bezumenski’s book carried the subtitle Unknown documents from Soviet archives. Thus, twenty-three years after the event, Soviet sources finally permitted disclosure of details of the autopsy with various dental and medical data on the death of Adolf Hitler as well as Eva Braun, Goebbels and his family.’ (details are outlined in attached document)
‘Heuserman, the chair-side dental assistance of Hitler’s dentist, Blaschke was interrogated in a talk with the Soviet Chief Expert of Forensic Medicine, Lieutenant Colonel Shkaravski on May 11 1945, in the Office of CAFS No. 496. Frau Heuserman described the state of Hitler’s teeth in every detail.’
‘One of the most important exhibits recovered from Soviet Archives concerns the objective photographic evidence illustrating the remains of the dentition of the corpse described in autopsy document Bo. 12. Included were photographs of a fixed dental prosthesis, namely, a 9-unit bridge, and the charred fragment of a mandible, the latter with several intact anterior teeth and two bridges, one on the right and one on the left side.’
‘The Final Interrogation Report of Blaschke: As a preamble to the interrogation report regarding Hitler’s dentistry, there is said to be three reasons for the report, namely, to provide (a) data useful in the identification of Hitler or his remains, (b) information to expose what might be future fraud, and (c) research material for the historian, the doctor and the scientist.’
‘The five X-ray plates attached are copies of originals found among Dr. Morell’s records. They have been positively identified by him as well as by Dr. Giesing as X-ray taken from Hitler. (…) This was during the period when Dr. Giesing was treating Hitler for ear injuring suffered at the time of the assassination attempt on 20 Jul 44.’ (All five X-ray plates are shown in the attached document with explanations and conclusions (page 60-63))
‘In comparing the five X-ray plates located in the U.S. National Archives, several principal observations emerge, which are considered of major significance in correlating subjective and objective evidence regarding the odontological identification of Hitler. Firstly, it became clear that Hitler had only four remaining teeth which were not involved in either bridging a gap or supporting a bridge between adjacent teeth. (…) Secondly, the X-rays indicate that the maxillary right central incisor and left lateral incisor, while completely opaque to the X-ray beam, do show short metallic posts for insertion into the root canals. (…) Thirdly, the X-rays show a very peculiar and very unusual dental bridge construction on the right lingual aspect of the mandible. (…) Fourthly, the X-rays show that the left maxillary incisor has the very characteristic feature of a partially opaque or metallic crown, typical of the now outmoded, but in times past, not infrequently uses, window-crown.’
‘After careful study of the various types of descriptive, diagrammatic and photographic evidence had been prepared with a view to summarizing what, in our judgment, represented the dental status of Adolf Hitler.’
‘From the overall comparison of the odontological evidence (Tables 1A and B, page 67-68) we conclude that the individual identified by means of the 1945 Hitler files located in the U.S. National Archives in 1972, is the same person as that whose 1945 autopsy report was published in 1968 on the basis of the previously unknown documents from Soviet Archives of 1945.’
ad 2. Striking passages
This document is an extensive repetition of document i, with the same evidence and conclusions. On page 199-200 Sognnaes writes: ‘Reappraisal of all documentary data – discounting legends, myths and speculations – now provides definite odontologic proof that Hitler did indeed die during the Berlin collapse of the Nazi dictatorship in 1945, and that the Russians did in fact recover and autopsy the body of the real Hitler.’
Independent comparison by a Dutch dentist
The documents of Bezymenski, Blaschke and Sognnaes are brought to the attention of an independent Dutch dentist with modern knowledge and technical insight of the world today (2012). The dentist writes:
“Hitler was a slob. He brushed his teeth insufficiently, causing bad teeth and bad breath. He had periodontal gum disease and as a result, he had many typical reconstructions.
Some things in Bezymenski’s research (and therefore also in Sognnaes’s work) are wrong and these arise from sloppy work. This can be explained by the fact that during the actual autopsy no dentist was present. We also have to put the whole story in a post war context: total social disorder and consequently hasty work of destroyed remains. Dentist Blaschke drew the teeth by heart in 1946. However, there are plenty of features from both documents which have a strong match.
Unusual is the metal arch in the right lower jaw (mentioned in Blaschke’s and Bezymenski’s/Sognnaes’ articles). Another parallel is the ‘cut’ surface in the left maxillary, indicating the cutting of a bridge portion (the element is then removed). A considerable bridge construction in the maxilla used to be normal, in particular with gold. Left below, there is a long bridge with three pillars, the middle pillar migrated backwards. There are some inconsistencies on this last fact.
The key features are:
* mandible: deviant feature of the metal arch bridge and the large bridge left below;
* upper jaw: main distinct feature of the cut bridge left. This is more common, but in combination with the (types of) crowns, this is really typical.
As a whole, it is plausible to assume that Blaschke and Bezymenski are talking about the same remains. Sognnaes confirms these findings. About Heusermann’s sketch: the amount of elements which are complemented by crown/bridge, are correct. “
The reason I did research on Hitler’s death was my article ‘Suicide Hitler not proven (inductive logic)’. According to the inductive theory (see article), I had to prove the possible fact that Hitler had committed suicide. The evidence was more or less lost to the world. This is demonstrated by the fact, that there is not one organisation in the world who has presented all the documents together. I turned to the National Archives in the UK, in Germany, in Nuremburg, in Russia and in the USA. Several Universities in the Netherlands and USA were approached and of course Simon Wiesenthal Center (SWC). Hardly any of them had even one document, let alone all of them. I was surprised, that the German Bundesarchiv and the Nuremburg City Archives had no legacy of Hitler’s suicide. Not even copies. The National Archives in Washington were very cooperative in sending Blaschke’s Final Interrogation Report but they gave radio silence on the subject of Sognnaes’ documents, despite frequent reminders. The Blaschke’s Final Interrogation Report refers to X-rays but the American National Archives did not share it with me. The Soviet Archives did not respond. I see no profit in these kind of bureaucratic acts.
SWC did not have any proof but they just assumed that Hitler committed suicide. SWC: “I don’t know of any reputable historian who claims differently (…) Other than that, I have nothing new to report.” SWC has lost the awareness of asking questions about so-called general knowledge. They assumed. I do not want criticize SWC because they are doing incredibly important work, but the inductive theory must constantly be present in our daily work, as gravy poured on meat. Scientific research and historical facts cannot simply be assumed like people breathing air. We have to be awake, aware and focused.
Obtaining evidence must be neutral and transparent. ‘Neutral’ means that you have to prove every statement and each document. ‘Transparent’ means that you have to reveal your findings to everyone. Opinions of others will lead to fine-tuning so the boundaries of truth get nearer and become more valid. Researchers are often too focused on rapid publication of a Eureka effect, the sudden, unexpected realisation of the solution to a certain problem. This is anything but being neutral and transparent.
I conclude that, despite hoaxes and conspiracy theories, Hitler indeed committed suicide. This was also reported by German witnesses. However, the last of Hitler’s henchmen were the most fanatic Nazis. Not a reliable source. Hitler’s skull does or did exist, but the Russian Archives simply gave the researches of the University of Connecticuta a different one. The Seduction was born. Formal errors sometimes lead to cardinal differences in outcomes. This is the power of The Seduction.
One fact is still unclear to me: where in Russia are the remains of Hitler? The official story goes that everything was burned. If this is true, the Russians destroyed the body without any explanation. This was not just a crime investigation, it was in fact the most important historical crime evidence of the last 2000 years. The study of Sognnaes is somewhat messy and the Russians should have known that some of the crucial components would become important. What for? In 1944, the purpose of DNA was discovered by Oswald Avery. He describes personal characteristics by storing information in cells. Yet 100 years earlier, DNA was discovered by Friedrich Meis Cher, a Swiss chemist. He labelled phosphorus-rich compound in cells (later called deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA). At that time, it was not known what it did. In 1953, the so-called spiral staircase was described by Watson and Crick. Sognnaes did his research in 1977. By that time, scientists could read DNA. The question remains: why did the Russians not preserve any of the crucial evidence from crime scene number 1 of the last two thousand years?
I could find one missing link. Sognnaes claims ‘Then, in 1972, archives in Washington released five X-rays of Hitler’s head, taken on July 20, 1944.’ But Bezymenski writes in 1968 about the morning on May 9 1945: ‘Wasting no time in the clinic, we drove to the Chancellery, taking Käthe Heusermann along. Here we went down to the basement, found Professor Blaschke’s dental office, and with Käthe Heusermann’s assistance soon discovered X-ray photographs of the Führer’s teeth and a few gold crowns that had been prepared, but time to put them to use run out on dentist and patient (page 54)’. They contradict each other.
I recommend worldwide archives to be more careful (read: transparent) with our most essential historical events and its evidence. If they handle it without care, hide it behind closed doors and only share it through tough cooperation, I foresee that people will deny these facts because of missing documents and misleading counterproof. National Archives and University Libraries should put crucial microfilms, documents, interrogations and audio interviews of historical issues on the Word Wide Web. These facts make us aware of our past and consequently of our future. The remains of Hitler should be accessible (if there is anything left). Viscous cooperation does not benefit any awareness. If I had missed any of the documents in this article by bureaucracy or politics, I might have come to a different conclusion. This is not desirable at all because it encourages alienation of historical facts.
Finally, I thank editor Martin Kooistra and the dentist who analysed all documents.
I d e n t i f i c a t i o n t i m e t a b l e
(*) documents presented by NL-Aid
- 30 April 1945: Hitler committed suicide
- 4 May 1945: (official 5 May 1945) the Soviet Army discovered the bodies of Hitler and Braun.
- 8 May 1945: Chief Forensic Pathologist Dr Faust Sherovsky and Russian Anatomical Pathologist Major Anna Marantz, performed an autopsy on Hitler’s body. The outcome has been published by Bezymenski in 1968. (*)
- 10 May 1945: Blaschke’s assistant, Kaethe Heusemann, and his dental technician, Fritz Echtmann are captured by the Soviets. Heusemann affirmed that the teeth were Hitler’s. (*)
- July 1945: Blaschke turned up in an American camp.
- 5 February 1946: During an interrogation Blaschke drew Hitler’s dental records from memory. (*)
- February 21, 1946: the Soviet Red Army buried the bodies of Hitler, Eva Braun and the Goebbels family in a unpaved area at 30-32 Klausenerstrasse, Magdeburg.
- 1947: book by Oxford professor Dr. H.R. Trevor-Roper about the first exhaustive investigation of the last days of Hitler. (*)
- 1968: book by Lev Bezymenski containing a description of how Hitler is found by the Sovjets and his autopsy. Also mentioned are the investigations about Hitler’s dog, Eva Braun and the Goebbels family: Joseph and Magda, 5 daughters and 1 son. Although the book is published in 1968, the witness reports cover a period starting in the bunker when Hitler is still alive, the findings of his remains on May 4 and the following autopsy. (*)
- 1970: Hitler’s remains are completely incinerated and disposed of so that no parts or portions could be used to raise Hitler to the status of martyrdom.
- 1972: archives in Washington released five X-rays of Hitler’s head, taken on July 20, 1944 because he suffered his ear after the bomb attack on his life. (*)
- 1977: book by Reidar Fauske Sognnaes in which he identified the match between Bezymenski and Blaschke, with the help of the X-rays. (*)
- 16 September 2009: Documentary Hitler’s Escape with Nicholas Bellantoni and Linda Strausbaugh at History Channel. (*)
- 2012: NL-Aid and undersigned: Suicide Hitler proven (The Seduction), a complete reference of previous research bundled together for first time in history. (*)
R e f e r e n c e
1. Bezymenski: Born in 1920 in Kazan. Studied philosophy in Moscow and entered the Soviet Armed Forces in 1941, first as a private and later as an officer in Stalingrad, Kursk and Berlin. An excellent scholar of German, he served as interpreter at the hearings of General Paulus, the German field marschal who surrended to the Russians after the Battle of Stalingrad. As a member of Marschall Zhukov’s staff, he participated in the Battle of Berlin. In 1946 he became co-editor of Novoe Vremia, a journal on foreign affairs. In this capacity he made various trips abroad, producing numerous articles on current events which were published throughout the Eastern countries. In 1968 the Russians finally admitted having the remains of Hitler. They permitted disclosure of details of the autopsy with various dental and medical data on the death of Hitler, Braun, Goebbels, Krebs and two dogs.
- Bezymenskiĭ, L. (Lev), 1920-. Der Tod des Adolf Hitler (The death of Adolf Hitler; unknown documents from Soviet archives) [by] Lev Bezymenski. [1st ed.] New York, Harcourt, Brace & World  (download HERE, 62 Mb)
2. Hugo Johannes Blaschke (1881-1959): He was interrogated by the Americans after the war about Hitler’s dental treatment in the hope that this would lead to the identification of his remains. He stated that he fitted a large dental bridge to Hitler’s upper jaw in 1933 and that on 10 November 1944 he carried out surgery to cut off part of the bridge due to a gum infection that was causing Hitler severe toothache. In May 1945 Soviet officers showed a dental bridge to Blaschke’s technician Fritz Echtmann and his dental assistant Käthe Heusermann and they both identified it as being Hitler’s. Blaschke also reconstructed the dental records of Martin Bormann from memory and these were later used to identify his skeletal remains which were discovered in Berlin in 1972. After his release from captivity in 1948 Blaschke continued to practise as a dentist in Nuremberg and died there aged 78. (Source: Wikipedia)
- Blaschke’s Final Interrogation Report in Record Group 238 (Microfilm Publication 1270). National Archives and Records Administration, Washington (download HERE)
3. Trevor-Roper. The first exhaustive investigation of the last days of Hitler was undertaken by the Oxford professor Dr. H.R. Trevor-Roper in 1945. The British Intelligence authorities in Germany in September of that year had given him the task to collect all available evidence on the last days of Hitler and to determine, if possible, the truth about his appearance or demise.
- Trevor-Roper. The Last Days of Hitler. 1945. (revised editions followed, until the last in 1995). (ISBN 0 330 49060 5)
4. Reidar Fauske Sognnaes (1911-1984): Dean of the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, founding Dean of the UCLA School of Dentistry and scholar in the field of oral pathology. He is credited with identifying the remains of Adolf Hitler and Martin Bormann, through examination of classified American and Soviet dental record. Sognnaes also disproved the theory that President George Washington had wooden teeth. (Source: Wikipedia)
- Sognnaes RF, Strom F. The odontological identification of Adolf Hitler. Definitive documentation by x-rays, interrogations and autopsy findings. Acta odontologica Scandinavica. 1973 (download HERE)
- Sognnaes RF. Dental evidence in the postmortem identification of Adolf Hitler, Eva Braun, and Martin Bormann. Legal medicine annual. 1977;1976:173-235 (download HERE)
5. Nicholas Bellantoni (Ph.D. UConn 1987; Associate Professor and State Archaeologist). Northeastern prehistory, faunal analyses, human osteological analysis. Professor Linda D. Strausbaugh, University of Connecticut, Molecular & Cell Biology. Bellantoni and Strausbaugh were both dealing with DNA analyses of Hitler’s skull, leading to a History Channel documentary: Hitler’s Escape (watch full broadcast: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=abZKF3bvHnY).
6. The Guardian: Tests on skull fragment cast doubt on Adolf Hitler suicide story
Unknown to the world, Hitler’s corpse was interred at a Smersh centre in Magdeburg, East Germany. There it remained long after Stalin’s death in 1953. Finally, in 1970, the KGB dug up the corpse, cremated it and secretly scattered the ashes in a river. Only the jawbone, the skull fragment and the bloodstained sofa segments were preserved in the deep archives of Soviet intelligence. The bunker was destroyed in 1947 and eventually paved over. Then, in 2000, the Russian State Archive in Moscow staged an exhibition, The Agony of the Third Reich. The skull fragment was displayed, but only photographs of Hitler’s jawbone were on view. The head of the archive, Sergei Mironenko, said he had no doubt the skull fragment was authentic. “It is not just some bone we found in the street, but a fragment of a skull that was found in a hole where Hitler’s body had been buried,” he said.
7. Further research
For further research and deeper investigation you might want to read the following documents:
- Sognnaes, Eva Braun Hitler’s Odontological Identification-A Forensic Enigma, J. Forensic Sci, April 1974, Vol. 19, No. 2
- Smith, Giordan. Nexus Magazine: Fabricating the Death of Adolf Hitler part 1, Fabricating the Death of Adolf Hitler part 2, Fabricating the Death of Adolf Hitler part 3.
C o p y r i g h t
This article is copyrighted and may only be copied, duplicated or quoted, including the attached documents, provided that you use the author as the source of information.
Suicide Hitler Proven (The Seduction) by Hans Sluijter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
This article is partly written to show that development organisations (charity) should prove rather than assert
AUTHOR: Hans Sluijter
E-MAIL: info [at] NL-Aid.org
Posted on | december 21, 2013 | 1 Comment
Muslim Town in the south of India, millions of mobs between rice fields, crossroads of trade silver, the core of global software industry and a spectacle of light in the Golconda Fort: this is Hyderabad. For a western guy, this is not a well-known cosmopolitan, but the area contains 7.7 million residents (7 times Amsterdam). In other words: this city is grotesque.
Some years ago I talked with activist K. Satyanarayana Rao of the M. Venkatarangaiya Foundation, better known as MV Foundation. According to their website:
“Based on the non-negotiable principle that ‘no child works and every child attends full time formal school as a matter of right’, MVF has been working towards abolition of child labour in all its forms and mainstreaming them into formal schools, for over a decade now. From its humble beginning in three villages in 1991, it has now spread its philosophy far and wide.”
Rao talks about child labour and the fact that many children are held behind fenced industries making it difficult to provide evidence. No activist ever succeeded to enter these guarded wall with machine guns, let alone to smuggle evidence. I asked Mr. Rao whether they had ever tried it with a white man. He looks at me quizzically. “No, of course not. To much danger.” But I am stubborn. After a while we exchange ideas. He talks about Jaya Biscuit Industries, owned by the state.
The adventure goes like this: on a sunny day I am visiting Jaya Biscuit Industries with Rao. The local printer made me 50 glossy business cards, printing:
Director of Importing/Exporting
Dutch Biscuits Worldwide Limited
I made up a website and contact details. Rao acts as my local guide and translator. The factory is spacious with, in my memory, watchtowers and two guards at the gate, one with a machine gun. They walked to us aggressively, but when I handed over my business card we should wait. With a bakelite telephone he made a phone call and after a few minutes a Jurassic Park-like gate opened. One of the guards gave him my business card and one second later he walked towards us with a smile on his face and an outstretched hand: he is Mr. P. Satya Narayana, General Manager. When the Jurassic gate closed behind us, we are on point of no return.
In the ‘oval office’ we talked about my personal life, little things and my business in India. In the meanwhile we were served tea with biscuits by a young kid of around 8. At a certain point he asked in which hotel I stayed. I said: “Golkanda Hotel”. And he invited himself to have dinner with me later this evening at Golkonda Hotel. He excused himself for a moment, of coursing checking me on Golkonda’s guest list. When he came back with a smile, we knew we past the exams. A risky moment: I asked for a guided tour. And…he agreed.
First we came in a room were they make cookie batter. I tasted it, acting like a connoisseur and making intelligent comments. There were no kids, only some youngsters. After this we came in a hall in the size of a single gymnasium. I saw what I was looking for but I took not further attention to it. On the left side and the length of the hall, stands a biscuit machine. I immediately ran towards it, pretending to be surprised about the technology. I asked Satya Narayana if I could make some photos and I took my camera. The digital age had not yet made its appearance and I took with me a camera with one button. Carrying an SLR-camera would draw attention of being undercover as a journalist. I made several picture from the automatic assembly line. Coming at the end, I make a turn of 180 degrees facing the kids. I also made two pictures. I knew in advance that I would not make sharp pictures with a pocket camera, but the initial goal was to come back with some kind of physical evidence within a reasonable safe undercover act. I estimate the children to be five to twelve years old. After an hour we went outside. With a machine gun in the corner of my eye, I shaked the hand of Satya Narayana. He reminded me to our meeting in my hotel this evening. The Jurassic gate closed, sealing the children. Once in my hotel I checked out and went to another one.
I gave the negatives of the photo’s to the MV Foundation but until this day I am not aware about what they have done with it.
My base camp was Kalkaji, New Delhi. I worked at the Global March Against Child Labour. The Global March was run by SACCS, South Asian Coalition on Child Servitude. Nowadays, it is known as BBA, Bachpan Bachao Andolan. It is here, that a philosophical miracle happened to me. I told my victory to some people until I stumbled on a question. Someone asked me:
‘Did you asked yourself the right questions?’
I did not know what that question meant. So silence was necessary to shape an answer. I could only come up with:
‘What do you mean?’
‘Who is serving this undercover operation? Did you asked the kids or the parents of the kids if they wanted to be rescued?’
There was no prior research and I sailed blindly on the MV Foundation. I even did not asked questions about it. I was out for excitement, adventure and a story. Was I selfish, seeking for glory, a showpiece or a gimmie? Perhaps the families of the children needed the income to come out of poverty in which I pushed them even further. To save you a long story, it’s okay to free kids but not just like headless chickens in a vacuum. Ethics should go hand in hand with good intentions. Good intention are not always the best choice. Perhaps there had been better options with these photographs and with greater impact. Who knows.
According to ABOLITION OF CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA, Strategies for the Eleventh Five Year Plan, submitted by National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) to Planning Commission of India the work of a Social Mobiliser is tough and complex:
The eradication of child labour cannot be done by the labour department alone, as it is so under-staffed. Labour department needs to have a cadre of youth volunteers who can be trained as ‘Social Mobilisers’ who will be responsible for withdrawing children from work as well as monitoring school dropouts and children with irregularity of attendance. It is understood that if such children are not tracked they would join the labour force as child labour.
There’s a wide range of tasks waiting for Social Mobilisers:
- Identify and establish contact with child labourers
- Motivate parents not to send their children to work but to school
- Persuade employers to release child labourers
- Organize mobilization programmes at the local levels by organizing street theatre, public meetings and rallies, house-to-house surveys to build up a social norm and a consensus that children must not work.
- Assist local community groups to organize child rights protection committees which can be the watchdogs of various government departments dealing with child labour eradication.
- Liaise with local officials in the education, labour, police and social welfare departments and bring problems and identify solutions.
- Assist locally elected bodies to be vigilant about children’s rights and to monitor and review the prevalence of child labour in their areas.
- Strengthen school education committees (SEC) so that school functioning improves and drop-outs (potential child labourers) are reduced.
- Bring rescued children to transitional educational centres from where they can be mainstreamed into the formal school system.
- Follow up of the regularity of attendance of all school going children and establish processes of reviewing through the gram panchayats.
This endorses the statement of BBA: freeing children is not just an executive task and one should first identify all stakeholders and their interests before taking action.
On the other hand, there is no excuse for goverments for such practices. A study called Child Labour in China’s Informalized Urban Industrial Sector investigated the manufacturing sector in Shenzhen, China.
Of the 37 factories, 20 of them (54 per cent) had at least one child worker (…) and child workers are frequently discovered in state factories, large private factories, and even in supply factories for Western brand companies.
Child Labour and Human Rights, A Prospective, Dr. Nanjunda D.C., ISBN 81-7835-645-7 state:
Most governments deny the existence of the problem, and some of the actually sustain the practice by hiring child labourers in state-owned enterprises. India is and “exemplary” case that demonstrate all of these problems.
Sans in Wheels ratifies this with more detail.
In the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh alone, 247,800 children work in cottonseed production and around 450,000 in all of India, most of them for Indian-owned companies.
There are many walls, for example the Korean Demilitarized Zone, the Bangladesh–India border, the Israeli Security Wall and the Mexico–United States barrier. There are even walls inside peoples heads. I do not know how many walls goverments have build worldwide around working children, like Jaya Biscuit Industries. Could these goverments have walls inside their heads? Maybe the cover of the album ‘The Wall’ of Pink Floyd is expressing the situation of these kids in the best thinkable way. In that case, each liberation is justified and social workers, journalists, activists and NGOs are not just looking for a gimmie.
* Child Labour & recycling of batteries
AUTHOR: Hans Sluijter
E-MAIL: info [at] NL-Aid.org
Posted on | december 21, 2013 | 2 Comments
WHAT’S IN A BATTERY?
There are two different types of batteries: primary and secondary. The chemical reactions that occur in primary batteries are irreversible, the stored energy can be used only once making the battery disposable. The chemical reactions that occur in secondary batteries are however reversible. These batteries can be recharged many times and gradually lose the ability to take and release energy.
There are many types of household batteries with different variations of chemical soups. The ingredients may include:
- toxic heavy metals like mercury, cadmium, zinc, lead, manganese dioxide/manganese (IV) oxide
- ammonium chloride salt (sodium and chlorine)
- zinc chloride
- silver oxide
- carbon dust (also known as black dust)
- car batteries also use hydrochloric
The vast recycling business in South Asia is divers, but the recycling of household batteries exceeds all of them. The whole day, children are hitting with hammers on batteries. They collect reusable carbon rods and sell it to factories who re-use it or melt them. Meanwhile, the skin and lungs of the children are filled with black dust and with the other listed toxic substances. What a prospect…not.
Child workers in battery recharging/recycling establishments are in particular investigated in Bangladesh and China. But also East-India (mainly Calcutta) is infected.
“…a total of 12,207 battery recharging/recycling establishments all over Bangladesh. The survey also estimated a national total of 5,513 child workers aged 5-17 years in these 12,207 establishments. About 36.9 percent of the working children worked 7-8 hours a day and 24.6 percent worked 9 to 10 hours. On an average, the child workers worked 8.2 hours a day. About 23.4 percent of the total working children reported various types of health problems such as fever, burns, headache etc. during the reference period of the survey. Only 13.2 percent of total working children reported using protective gear for avoiding risk. Out of 5513 working children, 824 or 15 percent were found to be abused by owners/employers at work place. Among the abused children a significant share (90.7%) were verbally rebuked/abused.”
Wu Y, Huang Q, Zhou X, Hu G, Wang Z, Li H, et al, describe in Study on the effects of lead from small industry of battery recycling on environment and children’s health the following environmental variables: lead levels in air, soil, drinking water and crops were measured. Biological monitoring: 959 children aged 5 – 12 years were selected from villages where the lead smelters located near the residential areas and the battery disassembling was done in some families. The control children (207 pupils) were from other villages without lead exposure. Blood lead, ZnPP and teeth lead were determined. Height, weight and head circle of children and IQ scores were measured. They concluded…
“…the average lead concentrations in air and soils were 8.5 times and 10 times of the MACs (national health standard) respectively. Eighty-five per cent the air samples with lead concentrations higher than the national health standard. The mean blood lead and ZnPP levels of children lived in the polluted areas were 496 microgram/L and 9.41 microgram/g Hb respectively. The lead exposure caused adverse effects on children’s IQ and physical development.”
Some years ago I roamed along the slums of Calcutta, ending up in what is called Dhobia Tola. I saw many blackened kids hitting batteries in most slums, but Dhobia Tola beats them all. There are many studies about the ragpickers of Kolkata, but none about the battery industry. There is even no information available on toxic exposures to children in India. On the Internet and at universities of Kolkata, data are lacking on all aspects of this subject: numbers of children exposed, duration of exposure, substances involved, resulting illnesses, and long-term effects. But in general, data are unavailable by country, by region, or globally. A missing link?
According to an article in The Telegraph (15/01/1998), a person should at least consume 400 grams of cereal per day to rise above the poverty line, but each day a person has 300 grams of grain to survive. If it is less, then you simply do not exist. Roughly, one can assume that all poor people, who use up between 300 and 400 grams per day, consume an average of 350 grams per day. In other words, only 50 grams of cereals per person per day is needed to rise above the poverty line. In places like Dhobia Tola, the fight about 50 grams is a necessity, among other things resulting in kids recycling batteries.
Let us cut the crap and list all possible health problems the kids are dealing with. Lead poisoning leads to vomiting, muscle and general weakness, loss of appetite, anemia, kidney problems, neurological disorders, brain damage, unconsciousness and possible convulsions, eventually followed by death.
Mercury poisoning leads to sensory impairment (vision, hearing, speech), disturbed sensation, lack of coordination, peripheral neuropathy (presenting as paresthesia or itching, burning or pain), skin discoloration (pink cheeks, fingertips and toes), swelling, desquamation (shedding of skin), profuse sweating, persistently faster-than-normal heart beat, increased salivation, hypertension (high blood pressure), increased sensitivity to light, kidney dysfunction, neuropsychiatric symptoms such as emotional lability, memory impairment, or insomnia.
Carbon dust does not irritate the skin, but fine particles can become embedded in the skin and trapped in hair follicles causing discolouration (carbon black tattoos) and follicular blackheads. High concentrations of dust can overwhelm the clearance capacity of the lungs, obstruct the lungs, and interfere with lung function. Symptoms may include coughing, increased phlegm production, and shortness of breath. It also leads to reduced lung function, emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis, fibrosis (scarring of the lungs).
Manganese dioxide may enter the body via the lungs or digestive tract. Dust from the atmosphere or from contaminated hands or food may also enter the mouth and be swallowed. Absorbed manganese accumulates in the blood leads to deposition in the majority of the body’s organs, loss of weight, loss of appetite, headaches, dizziness, somnolence, apathy and in the end it affects the nervous system.
Zinc poisoning result into vomiting, stomach cramps, diarrhea, low blood pressure, urine retention, jaundice, seizures, joint pain, fever, coughing and a metallic taste in the mouth.
The symptoms of cadmium poisoning are chills, fever, muscle ache, tracheo-bronchitis, pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, cough, dryness and irritation of the nose and throat, headache, dizziness, weakness, fever, chills, chest pain, liver and kidney problems (kidneys can shrink up to 30%, this is irreversible). The bones become soft (osteomalacia), kids lose bone mineral density (osteoporosis) and become weaker.
I count 94 symptoms which could infect these children. Do we need to say more? Is there any future for these kids? Are they able to concentrate on school? Should they resist all forms of cancer or even premature aging? What are their dreams which they are still able to achieve?
Bachpan Bachao Andolan since its inception in 1980, symbolizes the largest grassroots movement against child labour, child trafficking and child servitude, especially in India. The organization has a legacy of 30 years of crusading as an initiator of rescuing slave children (through direct action and raid and rescue operations) in India. The Child Labour Free India campaign has yielded tremendous results. The Union Minister for Labour and Employment has announced a new law called Child Labour Abolition Act, making child labour totally illegal and not just in some occupations and processes.
The battery recharging/recycling establishments are not mentioned by any NGO in the world, by means of a campaign, research or study. I am not making an attempt…no way. I just wanted to put the issue on the map and thus ratifying BBA’s campaign. Hopefully, BBA’s Godspeed will give hope to NGOs in Bangladesh and China. Maybe someday, someone will do a solid research to solve the missing link as mentioned. This so-called recycling business is a total misery and ugliness of a forgotten industry.
AUTHOR: Hans Sluijter
E-MAIL: info [at] NL-Aid.org
Posted on | december 21, 2013 | 2 Comments
The death of Osama gave me the urgent need to examine the death of an other terrorist and dictator: Adolf Hitler.
In my opinion, Hitler’s suicide is not proven. In 2009, his so-called skull was examined by the University of Connecticut and DNA analysis, bone’s identity and dental confirmation proved it belonged to a woman, aged 20 to 40. The remains of Hitler’s body was burned by the Soviets in 1970. It’s still a mystery why.
Several websites dispute Hitler’s death, with complot theories emphasizing a hoax. Only one movie about his so-called body exist. I took two stills which are slightly unclear (photo 1 and 2). Look at his ears.
For comparisation, I give you two photo’s of Hitler when he was alive (photo 3 and 4).
As an investigation technique, forensics are using ear identification, also known as Forensic Ear Identification (FEARID). Anthropological research includes the understanding of ear prints like a finger print. I have noticed different ears at Hitler’s death body and when he was alive.
The first two photo’s of Hitler’s body show ears like Spock in Star Trek. Besides the pointed ears, two details do not match (see number 1 and 2 in picture).
Detail number 1 is in particular visible in photo 1. This spot on the ‘death’ ear is to broad compared with the ‘alive’ ear (photo 3).
Detail number 2 is about Hitler’s earlobe. The death Hitler shows no earlobe, but the alive Hitler has a tiny one.
Furthermore, Hitler’s death face looks to good after it has been burned with gasoline. For example: this is the burned corpse of Paul Josef Goebbels:
Striking is his three-piece costume which is non-military (see photo 2). Witnesses during his last hours explained that he wore his army costume. I can come up with only one conclusion: photo number 1 and 2 are not of Adolf Hitler.
In fact, I saw pictures of a burned corps, apparently of Hitler. It was in my history book during secondary education, but nowadays these photo’s are unable to find in any book, through the Internet or in whatever archive. I wonder why? Anyhow, only the last henchmen of Hitler confirmed that Hitler comitted suicide after which his body is burned. These henchmen were the most fanatical Nazis, so not a reliable source. Perhaps they had every reason to lie (a final order?!?!). I can come up with two motives of the suicide story. The Germans wanted us to believe he committed suicide so he could fly or the Russians could not find him and made it up. The Russians could have two reasons for this. First, to override the German command structure in order to enforce a total and acute surrender. Second, the symbolic value as a gift to the Russian people that suffered so much. Who would believe that der Fuhrer is dead, without showing it? The Russians needed a showpiece, a gimmie. For mass psychological and for political reasons.
The German logician Carl Gustav Hempel illustrated inductive logic. Hempel describes the paradox in terms of the hypothesis:
(1) All ravens are black.
If so, this statement is equivalent to:
(2) Everything that is not black is not a raven.
For example, if we would look at a green apple, we are able to conclude that all ravens are still black. This implies that we obtain information about ravens by just looking at an apple.
We can expand this theory with the following argumentation: if we find a white raven, we may conclude two things:
3) not all ravens are black
4) all ravens are black except that one raven.
(Black Raven =BR; White Raven=WR)
Statement 1 and 2 are in general TRUE. We can only falsify this hypothesis, based on statement 3. The theory of the black and white raven goes like this: there is only one universum (=BR), until another one is found (=WR). Life only exists when breathing oxygen (=BR), until another life form is found (=WR). People do not become 200 years old (=BR), until it is no problem (=WR). Atoms and molecules exist (=BR), until we find a different truth (=WR). AIDS is incurable (=BR), until we find a cure (=WR). JF Kennedy is not shot by one man called Lee Harvey Oswald (=BR), until the One Bullet Theory is proven to be true. Et Cetra.
In order to prevent the effect of statement 4 (and thus endorsing statement 3), we need hard solid evidence and preferably by means of triangulation (=proven from at least three approaches). So, witness reports by Hitler’s last and most fanatical henchmen are not solid and based on triangulation. When I follow this logical reasoning, I can only conclude that there is no proof of Hitler’s suicide, therefore he did not die on April 30, 1945. The scientific evidence of the University of Connecticut supports these findings.
At present-day, the death of Osama reveals the same mysteries. We should only look at evidence, not to recognised official governmental statements. I guess, it’s okay to claim that Osama is killed and Hitler committed suicide. For me, these are very realistic interpretations. But, and this is very important, these interpretations are not proven. We should say: ‘we do not know what happened to Hitler, but probably he committed suicide’. Anything else is a created reality, a hollow phrase. I don’t know of any reputable historian who claims that Hitler didn’t killed himself….but this is not a valid evidence. This makes it plausible, yes that’s true. These historians are most likely correct, but it remains to much based on witness reports. I am surprised that these so-called solid witnesses, could not point out Hitler’s corps. It seems that all these years, the Russians had the wrong body.
Did Hitler committed suicide? Yes. Are we sure? No. Where these witnesses wrong? There are masses of people seeing the same UFO in the samen shape, colour and speed, but after a while it just shows to be a simple military study of an object with different shape, colour and speed. It is easy to fool a handful of people. We just miss some pathological evidence. A pitty.
Who decides when and what will be a black raven? Political media/propaganda is a birthplace of fake black ravens. For ordinary plebs, false assumptions becomes true. Horses are blue, chickens are scuba divers and electric outlets reproduce. Why not?
AUTHOR: Hans Sluijter
E-MAIL: info [at] NL-Aid.org
Posted on | december 21, 2013 | 3 Comments
In order to measure aid organisations (bilateral, multilateral, donors, NGOs) I would like to present my personal quadrants.
The quadrants are divided by two axes. On one side I have put qualitative reports and on the other side quantitative reports. In my opinion; qualitative is the same as to inform and quantitative is the same as to determine. This is also known as a statistical research. Samples are collected and statistics are calculated from the samples so that one can make inferences or extrapolations from the sample to the population. Statisticians ussually work with SPSS.
On the other axis I have placed closed and open with each other. Closed means that aid organisations do not inform citizens about the progress of cooperation/assistance. Open means that aid organisations use media as a transport ship to inform citizens. This leads to four quadrants: qualitative-open, open-quantitative, quantitative-closed and closed-qualitative.
To get more differentiation in each quadrant, I halved each quadrant by sub-axes. The first is evidence vs no evidence. Evidence lies close to quantitative and open.
The second is focussed on public vs focussed on output. Some aid organisations want to look good on the public mass, others prefer to focus on the actual output. Thus, the pizza slices occur.
Pizza slices (see image at the top):
- Information: Aid organisation that informs the public.
- Support: Aid organisation who finds it important to create support.
- Example: Aid organisation who finds it important to set an example for other aid organisations.
- Opinion:: Aid organisation that wants to play the public opinion by providing performance data.
- Focus: Aid organisation with high priority for proven output.
- Effective: Aid organisation that only wants to prove to himself and to his stakeholders. There is no responsibility outwards.
- Hide: Aid organisation that shows nothing and is closed to the public. Data is not publicly available. Evidence is difficult to obtain
- Appearance: Aid organisation that occurs differently than reality.
Aid organisations like Doctors Without Borders, UNICEF and WWF regularly put articles on their site. Their object can be placed in the quadrants information and support. I can not find any evidence to confirm the content of these articles. Some aid organisations open a tangle of bureaucracy that need to be solved before receiving poor information. It is a discouragement and a sign of ignorance. Examples are the EU, the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Development Cooperation.
In my view, Top right is the place for most Dutch aid organisation and Top left for most NGOs in the South. Unfortunately, too few aid organisations can be classified into the bottom left and right areas. In my view, aid organisations and NGOs need to make a shift to the bottom end of the circle.
One of the basic principles about Project Management is the concept of the Devil’s Triangle (read more on Wikipedia). There are three stakeholders on a triangle: time, cost, quality.
The basic question you need to ask is: which stakeholder is the most important target in your aid project?
Example 1: if one would choose quality for a certain project, you will loose stakeholder cost and time. In other words: it will take more time and financial investment.
Example 2: if one would choose quick results (time), the costs will go up and the quality will go down.
Example 3: projects with low cost will have lower quality and need more time to process.
Depending on the strategy, one can choose a spot in any place in the triangle areas: centered, left-aligned, midway between two corners, et cetera. Choose a far corner, and the other stakeholders will drop rapidly. Right in the middle of the triangle seems like a nice balance, but every stakeholder will partially lose.
There are variations on the Devil’s Triangle imaginable, like a devil-square or diamond. The fourth stakeholder could be focus, logistics or risk.
If within a project the support strategy is chosen (see quadrants), the importance of PR and creating support within a community becomes very important. The overhead increases. I mentioned Doctors Without Borders, UNICEF and WWF. They write all kinds of news articles, press releases and reports. They share nothing about proven output. I always doubt about their quality. Many aid organisations are master in politics. Of course, this is not wrong. At the political level processes may be fought, but some can not fail to exaggerate. The fourth stakeholder could also be replaced by politics.
The German logician Carl Gustav Hempel illustrated inductive logic. Hempel describes the paradox in terms of the hypothesis:
- All ravens are black.
- If we find a white raven: not all ravens are black.
This is the basic principle of all science. We have to proof the white raven in a scientific way to invalidate the hypothesis (and make a new one). The culture of aid is a strange culture, rather obstinate. Assumtions are taken for granted in a qualitative way. They make black ravens out of it. This is where it goes wrong. You can say that a hypothesis, which should scientifically be proven, is simply dropped from the air. The main question is: who ever determined that all ravens are black? In other words: who ever determined a certain track record or output? How is this scientifically established? A good example is Hitler’s suicide.
‘His’ burned corpse appears to be of a woman leaving only vague testimony from eyewitnesses who stayed with Hitler until the very last end. These were the most fanatical Nazis, not the most reliable source. So, the determination of the black ravens in this story is not scientific but it will always be part of our history books.
Especially in aid culture, this logic is lost. I argue that the inductive logic should be expanded. One should always prove that all ravens are black and not just invent a hypothesis. In that case, Hitler committed no suicide and the authenticity of many development projects becomes visible.
What can we learn from this?
In the Netherlands the Freedom of Information Act (Wet Openbaarheid van Bestuur) only applies to governmental organizations, not for non-governmental bodies like donors (read: foundations). Also if a single foundation spend hundred of millions of tax money (like Oxfam Novib, between € 150-200 million annual). In my opinion, all foundations who receive one penny of our tax should open their files to everyone, because tax money is public ownership. Even if they also receive funding by entrepreneurs or individual. The Freedom of Information Act should apply to all governmental bodies, NGOs and donors/foundations to force them to the bottom of the quadrant.
It’s to easy for governments to hide behind the structure in which their Extension do not have to be open. This results in narrow reflection. It is susceptible to fraud and it only creates a good news show (slice appearance, information, support).
The Dutch government only has a booking relation with foundations. These foundations (donors) only have a booking relation with NGOs in the South. That’s about it. But false receipts and double funding are common…a pitfall. To avoid this, accounting should only be seen as an administrative process, not a means to statistics. An administrative approach is yet another showcase for bureaucracy. Administrative results are hidden from public, while statistics can easily be published. This would mean a total different slice in the above quandrant. I believe, that aid organisations lack a scientific approach and often are unable to explain the origins of their black ravens. One should ask themselves to which pizza slice of the quadrant and to which stakeholder of the Devil’s Triangle he/she belong to. We should ask questions, not only about the white raven but also about the black raven. If we choose wisely, we can change the culture of aid.
AUTHOR: Hans Sluijter
E-MAIL: info [at] NL-Aid.org
Posted on | december 20, 2013 | No Comments
Monday, October 15, 2012, 9 AM Amsterdam time, NL-Aid will come to an end. This Monday, a nice article will mark the times of Updaid (precursor) and NL-Aid. We have discussed fraud within the Dutch development sector, the salaries of directors of Dutch NGOs, the sexual abuse within Dutch churches and much, much more. About 70 authors wrote and published through NL-Aid, all as a volunteer. Pictures of people’s every day lives of 13 photographers and pictures of 11 peacekeeping missions were published. Each picture is a painting. I thank all of them.
NL-Aid is an example of an advanced blog with many visitors: 1200-1500 unique visitors every day, 15,000 a month. Every day, 4,000 article were opened, 30,000 every month. On a top day, we had 4,500 unique visitors. I thank all of them.
I would like to invite you to read my last article on Monday, October 15, 2012.
NL-Aid will end with a big bang.
Administrator and owner of NL-Aid
AUTHOR: Hans Sluijter
E-MAIL: info [at] NL-Aid.org